An overview of theories of integration and deterrence

Another hostile superpower with a large nuclear arsenal of size comparable to our own under the START agreement could emerge at some future time, an event that would also heighten our concern about the risks of a major nuclear standoff.

specific deterrence

The dangers of proliferation are exacerbated by the existence of a few rogue regimes seeking such weapons, who appear to want them to establish regional dominance and to spoil perceived influence by the United States and its allies, and who we fear may use them in what we view as reckless disregard of the costs and dangers involved.

Where deterrence often fails is when either a defending state or an attacking state under or overestimate the others' ability to undertake a particular course of action. It has been extended by John D.

criticism of deterrence theory of punishment

Devising relationships with many of these power centers remains a dynamic and changeable process. This approach to deterrence was not effective outside the main NATO-Warsaw pact confrontation in Europe, because it became clear that we would view it as neither appropriate nor necessary to go to the extreme of unleashing nuclear weapons against perceived Soviet proxies in limited conflicts like those in Korea and Vietnam.

As a general rule, we may want to be more secretive when our capability or will may be inadequate, and we should be more transparent when we are more confident in our ability to act decisively.

general deterrence

More specific invocations of the mere existence of deterrent forces were more successful. Furthermore, intelligence must identify the most effective means of communicating with key individuals and states, both formally and informally.

Celerity deterrence theory

In recent years, many mainstream politicians, academic analysts, and retired military leaders have also criticized deterrence and advocated nuclear disarmament. This controversy accentuates several issues in crafting a new set of deterrence policies. The wound inflicted on unsuspecting populations he calls an "integral accident": The first deterrence, nuclear deterrence, is presently being superseded by the second deterrence: a type of deterrence based on what I call 'the information bomb' associated with the new weaponry of information and communications technologies. Thus, this circumstance lacks the "deter whom" component. Similarly, the extent to which we should be transparent or secretive will vary with the specific situation. Counterarguments to reserving nuclear weapons solely to deter the use of nuclear weapons hold that small nuclear weapons may have unique applicability in situations where it is important to take advantage of properties such as deep earth penetration, strong electromagnetic pulses, or enhanced radiation for rapid and widespread weapon effects that cannot be easily achieved by other means. In thinking of deterrence as a process, it is useful to envision a succession of related, sometimes parallel steps, and to anticipate some options if deterrence fails.

The weapons would, it is argued, provide weaker states with more security against attacks by stronger neighbors. They include important linkages between offensive and defensive systems; the key role of arms control in constraining both; the implications of technical boundaries between the theater and strategic-level 6 Richard Garwin notes, ''If the treaties against possession of chemical and biological weapons are universalized, then an international coalition could act even before the use of such weapons, and even against a nation that had not accepted the biological or chemical warfare treaty.

Deterrence theory definition

A nuclear deterrent is sometimes composed of a nuclear triad , as in the case of the nuclear weapons owned by the United States , Russia , the People's Republic of China and India. Practitioners tend to assume, for example, that states are unitary actors, and logical according to our concepts of rationality. Whereas perceived risk is a cognitive judgment, fear involves visceral feelings of anxiety or dread. The prevention of crises of wars however is not the only aim of deterrence. Modern Deterrence[ edit ] Modern Deterrence is the application of deterrence theory to non-nuclear and post-nuclear challenges, including hybrid warfare. As a general rule, we may want to be more secretive when our capability or will may be inadequate, and we should be more transparent when we are more confident in our ability to act decisively. While we felt we could watch without intervention while Kuwait and Iraq argued about the exploitation of oil fields that straddled their border, we could not tolerate the threat to the Western world's oil supply posed by an Iraq that moved militarily to sit astride some of the main sources of supply and to threaten major additional sources in Saudi Arabia. They have taken on an underlying economic character, which interacts with our desire to see democratic regimes spread and flourish based on the premise, articulated in the President's National Security Strategy, that "[t]he more that democracy and political and economic liberalization take hold in the world. Typically, it will be quite different from our own perceptions. Alternative theories however have challenged the rational deterrence theory and have focused on organizational theory and cognitive psychology. During the Cold War these forces were designed and organized to generate massive strikes from widely dispersed locations on short notice. This possibility places a priority on understanding the other party, particularly in terms of vulnerabilities and needs.

While the entire world understands the divisions between executive and legislature in the United States and various other parliamentary governments, doubt about whether the legislature will permit the executive to deliver on promised benefits can have as deleterious an effect on positive measures to induce desired behaviors as failure to punish can have on deterring undesirable behaviors.

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Deterrence theory